In the beginning of 1933 approximately 522,000 Jews lived in Germany. Over 304,000 Jews emigrated during the first six years of the Nazi dictatorship, leaving only approximately 214,000 Jews in Germany on the eve of World War II. On May 19, 1943, Germany was declared Judenrein (“free of Jews”), though it is estimated that as many as 19,000 Jews remained in Germany in hiding. The remaining total number after the Holocaust barely reached five percent of the Jewish population before the war. This number decreased further as many German Jews immigrated to Israel in the 1950s.

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